Frog Identification Keys - Anaxyrus formerly Bufo (Toads)

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  • Eastern American Toad (A. americanus)

  • Fowler's Toad (A. fowleri)

  • Oak Toad (A. quercicus)

  • Southern Toad (A. terrestris)

American Toad - americanus
The parotoid glands are separated or connected to a postorbital ridge by a spur.

Fowler's Toad - fowleri
Parotoid glands in direct contact with the postorbital ridges.

Southern Toad - terrestris
Pronounced knobs near the rear of the interorbital crests.

When inflated the vocal sack of the vocal sack americanus, fowleri and terrestris has a rounded shape

When inflated the vocal sack of quercicus has a sausage like shape.

Due to frequent hybridization between americanus and fowleri and to a lesser degree terrestris, some toads may exhibit the characteristics of one or more species. The oak toad is the only species of Anaxyrus (formerly Bufo) not known to hybridize.

If the toad:

  • Has only one or two large warts in each of the largest dorsal dark spots.

  • Has dark spots on the chest and anterior part of the abdomen.

  • Has enlarged warts on the tibia.

  • Has parotoid glands that are separated from or connected to a postorbital ridge by a short spur (see above drawing).

Then the toad is an Eastern American Toad (Anaxyrus (formerly Bufo) americanus americanus)

If the toad:

  • Has three or more large warts in each of the largest dorsal dark spots.

  • Has a virtually unspotted chest and abdomen.

  • Has no greatly enlarged warts on the tibia.

  • Has parotid glands that touch the postorbital ridge (see above drawing).

Then the toad is a Fowler's Toad (Anaxyrus (formerly Bufo) fowleri)

If the toad:

  • Is found in the Southeastern portion of Virginia.

  • Has pronounced knobs and high cranial crests (see above drawing).

Then the toad is a Southern Toad (Anaxyrus (formerly Bufo) terrestris)

If the toad:

  • Is found in the Southeastern portion of Virginia.

  • Has a conspicuous light middorsal stripe.

  • Is small in size, with a maximum adult SVL of 1.4 inches (35 mm).

  • Has inconspicuous cranial crests.

Then the toad is an Oak Toad (Anaxyrus (formerly Bufo) quercicus)

FROGS

Virginia is home to 28 species of frogs and toads.

SALAMANDERS

We have a large diversity of salamanders consisting of 56 different species and subspecies.

LIZARDS

Virginia is home to 9 native lizard species and two introduced species, the Mediterranean Gecko and the Italian Wall Lizard.

SNAKES

The Commonwealth is home to 34 species and subspecies of snake. Only 3 species are venomous.

TURTLES

Virginia has 25 species and subspecies of turtle. Five of these species are sea turtle.

BOX TURTLE REPORTING

SPADEFOOT REPORTING

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