Snakes of Virginia

Virginia Snake Identification Guide | Venomous Snake Bite Information | Copperhead look-a-likes
Cottonmouth look-a-likes | Classification of Virginia Snakes | Venom Yield Information

Scientific name (Common name)
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Photos

Venomous

Venomous

Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen
(Northern Copperhead)

Average Length: 24-36 in. (61-90 cm)

Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus
(Eastern Cottonmouth)

Average Length: 30-48 in. (76-122 cm)

Crotalus horridus
(Timber Rattlesnake)

Average Length: 30 - 60 in. (90 - 152 cm)


Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Southeastern populations VWAP Rating: Tier II

Harmless

Harmless

Carphophis amoenus amoenus
(Eastern Wormsnake)

Average Length: 7.5 - 11 in. (19 - 28 cm)

Cemophora coccinea copei
(Northern Scarletsnake)

Average Length: 14 - 20 in. (36 - 51 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Coluber constrictor constrictor
(Northern Black Racer)

Average Length: 36 - 60 in. (90 - 152 cm)

Diadophis punctatus edwardsii
(Northern Ring-necked Snake)

Average Length: 10 - 15 in. (25.4 - 38 cm)

Diadophis punctatus punctatus
(Southern Ring-necked Snake)

Average Length: 10 - 14 in. (25.4 - 36 cm)

Farancia abacura abacura
(Eastern Mudsnake)

Average Length: 40 - 54 in. (102 - 137 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV


Farancia erytrogramma erytrogramma
(Common Rainbow Snake)

Average Length: 27 - 48 in. (68.8 - 122 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV


Heterodon platirhinos
(Eastern hog-nosed Snake)

Average Length: 20 - 33 in. (51 - 84 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Lampropeltis calligaster rhombomaculata
(Mole Kingsnake)

Average Length: 30 - 40 in. (76 - 102 cm)

Lampropeltis getula
(Eastern Kingsnake)

Average Length: 36 - 48 in. (90 - 122 cm)

Lampropeltis nigra
(Eastern Black Kingsnake)

Average Length: 36 - 45 in. (90 - 114 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier III

Lampropeltis elapsoides
(Scarlet Kingsnake)

Average Length: 14 - 20 in. (36 - 51 cm)

Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum
(Eastern Milksnake)

Average Length: 24 - 36 in. (61 - 90 cm)

Nerodia erythrogaster
(Plain-bellied Water Snake)

Average Length: 30 - 48 in. (76 - 122 cm)

Nerodia sipedon sipedon
(Northern Watersnake)

Average Length: 24 - 42 in. (61-106.7 cm)

Nerodia taxispilota
(Brown Watersnake)

Average Length: 30 - 60 in. (76 - 152 cm)

Opheodrys aestivus
(Northern Rough Greensnake)

Average Length: 22 - 32 in. (56 - 81 cm)

Opheodrys vernalis
(Smooth Greensnake)

Average Length: 11 - 20 in. (30.3 - 51 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating:Tier III

Pantherophis alleghaniensis
(Eastern Ratsnake)

(formerly Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta (BlackRatsnake)
Average Length: 42 - 72 in. (106.7-183 cm)

Pantherophis guttatus
(Red Cornsnake)

Average Length: 30 - 48 in. (76 - 122 cm)

Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus
(Northern Pinesnake)

Average Length: 48 - 66 in. (122 - 168 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier I

Regina rigida rigida
(Glossy Crayfish Snake)

Average Length: 14 - 24 in. (36 - 61 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier III

Regina septemvittata
(Queensnake)

Average Length: 15 - 24 in. (38 - 61 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Storeria dekayi dekayi
(Northern Brownsnake)

Average Length: 9 - 13 in. (23 - 33 cm)

Storeria occipitomaculata occipitomaculata
(Northern Red-bellied Snake)

Average Length: 8 - 10 in. (20.3 - 25.4 cm)

Tantilla coronata
(Southeastern Crowned Snake)

Average Length: 8 - 10 in. (20 - 25.4 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Thamnophis sauritus sauritus
(Common Ribbonsnake)

Average Length: 18 - 26 in. (45.7 - 66 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis
(Eastern Gartersnake)

Average Length: 18 - 26 in. (45.7 - 66 cm)

Virginia striatula
(Rough Earthsnake)

Average Length: 7 - 10 in. (18 - 25.4 cm)

Virginia valeriae pulchra
(Mountain Earthsnake)

Average Length: 7 - 10 in. (18 - 25.4 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier II

Virginia valeriae valeriae
(Eastern Smooth Earthsnake)

Average Length: 7 - 10 in. (18 - 25.4 cm)

The Virginia Herpetological Society follows the naming conventions set forth by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, The Herpetologists’ League, and the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. For the most current list click here.

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating Tier IV - Moderate Conservation Need - The species may be rare in parts of its range, particularly on the periphery. Populations of these species have demonstrated a significant declining trend or one is suspected which, if continued, is likely to qualify this species for a higher tier in the foreseeable future. Long-term planning is necessary to stabilize or increase populations.

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating Tier III - High Conservation Need - Extinction or extirpation is possible. Populations of these species are in decline or have declined to low levels or are in a restricted range. Management action is needed to stabilize or increase populations.

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating Tier II - Very High Conservation Need - Has a high risk of extinction or extirpation. Populations of these species are at very low levels, facing real threat(s), or occur within a very limited distribution. Immediate management is needed for stabilization and recovery.

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating Tier I - Critical Conservation Need - Faces an extremely high risk of extinction or extirpation. Populations of these species are at critically low levels, facing immediate threat(s), or occur within an extremely limited range. Intense and immediate management action is needed.

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