Snakes of Virginia

Virginia Snake Identification Guide | Venomous Snake Bite Information | Copperhead look-a-likes
Cottonmouth look-a-likes | Venom Yield Information | Classification of Virginia Snakes | Virginia Snakes Sorted by Length | Snake Quiz


Venomous

Northern Copperhead
(Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen)
Average Length: 24-36 in. (61-90 cm)

Safety Precautions in Copperhead Country

Eastern Cottonmouth
(Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus)
Average Length: 30-48 in. (76-122 cm)

Timber Rattlesnake
(Crotalus horridus)
Average Length: 30 - 60 in. (90 - 152 cm)


Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Southeastern populations VWAP Rating: Tier II

Harmless

Eastern Wormsnake
(Carphophis amoenus amoenus)
Average Length: 7.5 - 11 in. (19 - 28 cm)

Northern Scarletsnake
(Cemophora coccinea copei)
Average Length: 14 - 20 in. (36 - 51 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Northern Black Racer
(Coluber constrictor constrictor)
Average Length: 36 - 60 in. (90 - 152 cm)

Northern Ring-necked Snake
(Diadophis punctatus edwardsii)
Average Length: 10 - 15 in. (25.4 - 38 cm)

Southern Ring-necked Snake
(Diadophis punctatus punctatus)
Average Length: 10 - 14 in. (25.4 - 36 cm)

Eastern Mudsnake
(Farancia abacura abacura)
Average Length: 40 - 54 in. (102 - 137 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV


Common Rainbow Snake
(Farancia erytrogramma erytrogramma)
Common Rainbow Snake
Average Length: 27 - 48 in. (68.8 - 122 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV


Rough Earthsnake
(Haldea striatula)
Average Length: 7 - 10 in. (18 - 25.4 cm)

Eastern hog-nosed Snake
(Heterodon platirhinos)
Average Length: 20 - 33 in. (51 - 84 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Northern Mole Kingsnake
(Lampropeltis calligaster rhombomaculata)
Average Length: 30 - 40 in. (76 - 102 cm)

Eastern Kingsnake
(Lampropeltis getula)
Average Length: 36 - 48 in. (90 - 122 cm)

Eastern Black Kingsnake
(Lampropeltis nigra)
Average Length: 36 - 45 in. (90 - 114 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier III

Scarlet Kingsnake
(Lampropeltis elapsoides)
Average Length: 14 - 20 in. (36 - 51 cm)

Eastern Milksnake
(Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum)
Average Length: 24 - 36 in. (61 - 90 cm)

Eastern Glossy Swampsnake
(Liodytes rigida rigida)
Average Length: 14 - 24 in. (36 - 61 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier III

Plain-bellied Water Snake
(Nerodia erythrogaster)
Average Length: 30 - 48 in. (76 - 122 cm)

Northern Watersnake
(Nerodia sipedon sipedon)
Average Length: 24 - 42 in. (61-106.7 cm)

Brown Watersnake
(Nerodia taxispilota)
Average Length: 30 - 60 in. (76 - 152 cm)

Northern Rough Greensnake
(Opheodrys aestivus)
Average Length: 22 - 32 in. (56 - 81 cm)

Smooth Greensnake
(Opheodrys vernalis)
Average Length: 11 - 20 in. (30.3 - 51 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating:Tier III

Eastern Ratsnake
(Pantherophis alleghaniensis)
Average Length: 42 - 72 in. (106.7-183 cm)

Red Cornsnake
(Pantherophis guttatus)
Average Length: 30 - 48 in. (76 - 122 cm)

Northern Pinesnake
(Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus)
Average Length: 48 - 66 in. (122 - 168 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier I

Queensnake
(Regina septemvittata)
Average Length: 15 - 24 in. (38 - 61 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Northern Brownsnake
(Storeria dekayi dekayi)
Average Length: 9 - 13 in. (23 - 33 cm)

Northern Red-bellied Snake
(Storeria occipitomaculata occipitomaculata)
Average Length: 8 - 10 in. (20.3 - 25.4 cm)

Southeastern Crowned Snake
(Tantilla coronata)
Average Length: 8 - 10 in. (20 - 25.4 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Common Ribbonsnake
(Thamnophis sauritus sauritus)
Average Length: 18 - 26 in. (45.7 - 66 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier IV

Eastern Gartersnake
(Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis)
Average Length: 18 - 26 in. (45.7 - 66 cm)

Mountain Earthsnake
(Virginia valeriae pulchra)
Average Length: 7 - 10 in. (18 - 25.4 cm)

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating: Tier II

Eastern Smooth Earthsnake
(Virginia valeriae valeriae)
Average Length: 7 - 10 in. (18 - 25.4 cm)


The Virginia Herpetological Society follows the naming conventions set forth by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, The Herpetologists’ League, and the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating Tier IV - Moderate Conservation Need - The species may be rare in parts of its range, particularly on the periphery. Populations of these species have demonstrated a significant declining trend or one is suspected which, if continued, is likely to qualify this species for a higher tier in the foreseeable future. Long-term planning is necessary to stabilize or increase populations.

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating Tier III - High Conservation Need - Extinction or extirpation is possible. Populations of these species are in decline or have declined to low levels or are in a restricted range. Management action is needed to stabilize or increase populations.

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating Tier II - Very High Conservation Need - Has a high risk of extinction or extirpation. Populations of these species are at very low levels, facing real threat(s), or occur within a very limited distribution. Immediate management is needed for stabilization and recovery.

Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating Tier I - Critical Conservation Need - Faces an extremely high risk of extinction or extirpation. Populations of these species are at critically low levels, facing immediate threat(s), or occur within an extremely limited range. Intense and immediate management action is needed.

* Note: Map depiction of the Eastern Shore and other jurisdictions - The DGIF generated maps include the Eastern Shore. The maps look different because the boundaries used are the actual jurisdictional boundaries, which include much of the water in the Chesapeake Bay, thus Accomack and Northampton Counties look like they are connected to the rest of the state. Other jurisdictions may look odd, too, since they include their boundaries out into the Bay and other waterbodies (such as Mathews County, York County, City of Poquoson, and City of Hampton).

FROGS

Virginia is home to 28 species of frogs and toads.

SALAMANDERS

We have a large diversity of salamanders consisting of 56 different species and subspecies.

LIZARDS

Virginia is home to 9 native lizard species and two introduced species, the Mediterranean Gecko and the Italian Wall Lizard.

SNAKES

The Commonwealth is home to 34 species and subspecies of snake. Only 3 species are venomous.

TURTLES

Virginia has 25 species and subspecies of turtle. Five of these species are sea turtle.