Upland Chorus Frog
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: This species ranges in size from 19 to 35 mm (3/4 to 1-3/8 in). Its dorsal pattern is extremely variable with a few consistencies: 1) a light line along the upper lip and 2) a dark stripe from snout to groin that passes through the eye. The general coloration is brown or grey. The middorsal pattern may be striped, partially striped, spotted or absent. Typically there are 3 longitudinal dark stripes that may be broken into streaks or rows of small spots. A dark triangle is often present between the eyes. The ventrum is cream-colored and often stippled with dark spots. The tibia length is equivalent to 1/2 the length from snout to vent *11407*.
REPRODUCTION: This species attains sexual maturity after the first year *11406*. Breeding occurs between February and May. The male mating call is a regularly repeated "crreek" or "prreep" resembling the sound of running a finger along a comb. Males call from fairly open areas *11407*. Mating success among males was found to be low, approximately 17.2% *11406*. Ovum size was found to be larger and duration of development longer in montane vs. lowland populations *11406*. Eggs are laid in clumps of approximately 1000 eggs. These clumps are attached to vegetation. Metamorphosis occurs in two or three months *11284*.
BEHAVIOR: They are found among grassy swales, moist woodlands, river bottom swamps, and in the vicinity of ponds, bogs, and marshes *11407*. Silent males exhibit a behavior called sexual interference or satellite behavior. These satellite males sit quietly near calling males. Two hypotheses exist as to the results of this behavior: 1) these males intercept the females that are migrating towards the calling males and/or 2) these males move into territories established by the calling males once they have finished mating *11406*.
LIMITING FACTORS: This species requires semi-permanent, late winter pools for breeding *11284*.
POPULATION PARAMETERS: Mating success among males is low, approximately 17.2% *11406*.
AQUATIC/TERRESTRIAL ASSOCIATIONS: This species is found in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont with scattered populations in the montane region *11332*. It is distributed within grassy swales, moist woodlands, river bottom swamps, and in the vicinity of ponds, bogs, and marshes *11407*. This species seems to particularly be prevalent in sweet gum-yellow poplar river bottom swamps *11284*.
References for Life History
- 11284 - Wilson, L.A., 1995, Land manager's guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the South, 360 pp. pgs., The Nature Conservancy, Southeastern Region, Chapel Hill, NC
- 11332 - Mitchell, Joseph C. and Karen K. Reay, 1999, Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Virginia, Num. 1, 122 pgs., Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond, VA
- 11406 - Duellman, William E. and, Trueb, Linda, 1986, Biology of Amphibians, 671 pgs., The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
- 11407 - Conant, Roger and, Collins, John T., 1998, Peterson Field Guide: Reptiles and Amphibians, Eastern/Central North America, 616 pgs., Houghton Mifflin Company;, Boston
*Click on a thumbnail for a larger version.
Verified County/City Occurrence
Charles City County
Clifton Forge City
Isle of Wight County
James City County
King and Queen County
King William County
New Kent County
Newport News City
Prince Edward County
Prince George County
Prince William County
Verified in 69 Counties/Cities.